The crown & crescent are the state mark and are followed by a numeric standard mark and usually a maker’s mark (symbol, initials or full name). Prior to 1884, instead of the crown & crescent, each city had its own symbol and silver purity was sometimes marked on the lothige system with a number 12 or more commonly 13.
Assay marks for silver purity found on German and Polish silver of the 18th & 19th centuries.
The Loth system divided silver into 16 parts. 16/16 for pure silver 15=.937 14=.875 13=.812 12=.750
Individual City & Town marks were used until 1884:
Mark Beginning in 1763, a letter was added below the pomegranate to indicate the date.
Berlin City Mark
Beginning in the mid-18th century, a letter was added within the standing bear’s circle to indicate the date
Dessau City Mark
Variations on the block letter D was used from the 17th century through the early 19th century when it was changed to a script letter D.
Dresden City Mark
Variations on the crossed swords and D were used from the early 18th century through the late 19th century.
Frankfurt am Main City Mark
Illustrated is a late 18th cent. example, earlier versions lacked the standard number and were in a circular cartouche, sometimes with an F on the eagle’s breast.
Goerlitz City Mark
Sometimes seen with a “12” included above the crown.
Hamburg City Marks ~ 19th Century
Included with maker’s marks. The three tower and gate mark was used from the 17th century and was rendered within of a shield form until the late 18th cent. Beginning in the early 18th century, a letter was placed within the castle gate as a date mark.
Hanau City Mark
Seen with or without the loth number above the chevrons. Beginning in the mid 19th Century, hallmarking rules were rescinded and many Hanau silversmiths used antique looking ‘fantasy’ marks.
Kassel City Mark
The shield form evolved into a circle in the latter eighteenth century and a date letter was added below.
Lubeck City Mark
Variations on the double headed eagle were used from ca.1500 through the 18th century
Munich City Mark 1824 (München)
The angel was used, in one form or another, from the 17th century to the late 19th century, date numerals began in the mid 18th century.
Used in the 19th century.
Saulgau City Mark
Stuttgart City Mark
The rearing horse was used in the 16th & 17th centuries. From the 18th through late 19th century, it evolved into a running horse and acquired a date code letter below his belly.
The German State crescent moon & crown mark replaced the individual city marks in 1884. The crown & crescent moon are used in conjunction with a maker’s mark and a decimal silver standard mark. Common silver standards are .800 & .835- .830, .900, .925 and .935 purities are also used.
Dusseldorf Mark used 1895 – 1917, see Mansfelder Silber
Schwäbisch Gmund founded 1869
Schwäbisch Gmund founded 1887
Bremen 1905 – 1981
Bremer Silberwarenfabrik (BSF)
Bremen Division of Wilkens since 1981, specializing in modern design flatware.
Bruckmann & Söhne
Heilbronn founded 1805
Schwäbisch Gmund founded 1820
Pforzheim active c.1930’s to 1960’s
Schwäbisch Gmund founded 1893
Theodor Julius Gunther
Berlin Succeeded by Robert Freund
Burgdorf / Hannover
Hanseatische Silberwarenfabrik Bremen
Schwäbisch Gmund1870 – Present
Munich / München b.1853 – d.1928
Waldstetten1921 – Present
Döbeln founded 1828
Koch & Bergfeld
Bremen founded 1829
Schwäbisch Gmund Active ca. 1900-1940
Pforzheim Active ca. 1900-1940
Langer & Gunther
Lutz & Weiss
Pforzheim founded 1882
Adam Manns & Sohne
Frankfurt am Main Jugendstil period, jewelry and holloware
Arthur Möhrle (Moehrle)
Schwäbisch Gmund 1895 – Present
Mansfelder Silberwarenfabrik (Franz Bahner)
Mansfeld 1917 – 1969
Berlin founded 1807
Weissenfels Active ca. 1925 – 1960
Frankfurt am Main Active ca. 1870 – 1930
Krumbach Bayern 1874 – Present.
a. 1899 – 1924
b. 1924 – 1949
Robbe & Berking
Flensburg 1874 – Present
Rossdeutscher & Reisig
J. D. Schleissner Söhne
Hanau Founded 1816 – Present
Itzehoe founded 1857
Strasbourg Active ca. 1900 – Jugendstil style.
Düsseldorf founded 1810
E. L. Vietor
Darmstadt Active ca.1890-1910
M. H. Wilkens & Söhne
Bremen-Hemelingen founded 1810
Otto Wolter Silberwarenfabrik
Württembergische Metallwarenfabrik (WMF)
Silverplate Mark (WMF)
Geislingen ca. 1900